(See section below on Nuclear technology exports for further information.) Following the election of President Francois Hollande in 2012 with his policy to reduce the proportion of nuclear power in the energy mix, a new wide ‘national debate on energy transition’ was called, which ran eight months to July 2013.The Ministry for Ecology Sustainable Development and Energy counted 170,000 people taking part in 1000 regional debates, and received 1200 submissions over the Internet.In 2015 electricity production was 568 TWh (gross), and of this nuclear provided 437 TWh (77%), hydro 59 TWh, coal and gas 32 TWh, and solar and wind 29 TWh.After net exports of 64 TWh, total electricity consumption came to 422 TWh, about 6,300 k Wh per capita on average. Over the last decade France has exported up to 70 TWh net each year and Electricité de France (EDF) expects net exports to continue at 55-70 TWh/yr.In 2013 French prices for medium-size industrials were about 90% of EU-27 average, and those for medium-size households (at less than 8 c/k Wh) were less than half of EU-27 average.In 1999 a parliamentary debate reaffirmed three main planks of French energy policy: security of supply (France imports more than half its energy), respect for the environment (especially re greenhouse gases) and proper attention to radioactive waste management.It also has an extremely low level of carbon dioxide emissions per capita from electricity generation, since over 90% of its electricity is nuclear or hydro.
In 2017 France postponed its 2025 target for reducing the share of nuclear to 50%.
A report published in September 2013 by OPECST, a scientific commission of senators and MPs from the upper and lower houses of Parliament said France risks being exposed to a power price shock if it pursues a speedy reduction of nuclear power and there is insufficient replacement through renewable energy and energy efficiency measures.